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100 MUST WATCH Movies About Psychology

Written by Alice Palioura

Truth be told, not all movies are realistic when depicting mental health issues. That is because the actors probably don’t suffer from a mental health disorder or just don’t know much about psychology. Nonetheless, anyone who wants to get more educated and indulged in psychology should start by watching some movies that will allow him to be sensitized and get a first glimpse of the laws of psychology and how each mental health issue may look like. Below are 100 movies and their themes:

  1. Silver Linings Playbook- Bipolar disorder
  2. A beautiful mind- Schizophrenia
  3. What about Bob- Anxiety
  4. The skeleton twins- Depression
  5. 12 angry men- Social psychology
  6. 28 days- Substance abuse disorders
  7. Enough- Domestic violence
  8. Notebook- Alzheimer’s disease
  9. Rain man- Autism
  10. As good as it gets- Obsessive compulsive disorder
  11.  Jacob’s ladder- Post traumatic stress disorder
  12. Split- Dissociative identity disorder
  13. Still Alice- Alzheimer’s disease
  14. Black swan- Psychosis
  15. Regarding Henry- Retrograde amnesia
  16. Reign over me- Post traumatic stress disorder
  17. Requiem for a dream- Addiction
  18.  Canvas- Schizophrenia
  19. Gone with the wind- Narcissistic personality disorder
  20. Annie Hall- Generalized anxiety disorder
  21. Mozart and the whale- Asperger’s syndrome
  22. To the bone- Anorexia
  23. Danish girl- Gender dysphoria
  24. The perks of being a wallflower-Depression
  25. It’s kind of a funny story- Depression
  26. Melancholia-Depression
  27. The platform-Social psychology
  28. The vow-Dementia
  29. Amadeus-Delusional disorder
  30. What’s eating Gilbert Grape-Intellectual disability
  31. Forrest Gump-Intellectual disability
  32. The lighthouse of the Whales-Autism
  33. Love and other drugs-Parkinson’s disease
  34. Ragin Bull-Intermittent explosive disorder
  35. The departed-Antisocial personality disorder
  36. Unforgiven-Antisocial personality disorder
  37. The butterfly effect-PTSD, Schizophrenia
  38. Hide and seek-Dissociative identity disorder
  39. Kramer vs Kramer- Psychology of divorce
  40. Secret obsession-Amnesia, PTSD
  41. The dream team- Psychiatric hospital
  42. Gone baby gone-Addiction, neglect
  43. The soloist- Schizophrenia
  44. Driving miss Daisy-Alzheimer
  45. Iron Lady-Alzheimer
  46. The help-Racism
  47. We need to talk about Kevin-Antisocial personality disorder
  48. Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind-Generalized anxiety disorder
  49. Identity-Psychosis
  50. On golden pond-Dementia
  51. Memento-Amnesia
  52. The blind side-Family dynamics
  53. The hurricane-Discrimination
  54. Good Will Hunting-PTSD, Borderline personality disorder
  55. Ordinary people- Depression, Anxiety
  56. Save the last dance-Peer violence
  57. Girl, interrupted-Borderline personality disorder
  58. A clockwork orange-Antisocial personality disorder
  59. Take shelter-Schizophrenia
  60. The deer hunter-PTSD
  61. A woman under the influence-Psychosis
  62. Room-Captivity, PTSD
  63. I am not your negro-Racism
  64. Side effects-Antisocial personality disorder
  65. The headless woman-PTSD
  66. Prozac nation-Autobiographical, Depression
  67. Psycho-Schizophrenia
  68. The fire within-Alcoholism
  69. Mulholland Dr.-Narcissistic personality disorder
  70. Se7en-Antisocial and borderline personality disorder
  71. Clinical- PTSD, psychiatric patients
  72. Wounds-PTSD
  73. Fractured-Amnesia, grief
  74. The girl on the train-Depression, Alcoholism
  75. Escape room-Social psychology
  76. Freud-History of psychology
  77. The devil and Daniel Johnston-Bipolar disorder
  78. Shame-Borderline personality disorder
  79. Fight club-Dissociative personality disorder
  80. Pink Floyd: The wall-Social psychology
  81. The morning after-Drug abuse
  82. Lake city-Family dynamics
  83. My name is Bill W.- Alcoholism
  84. When love is not enough- Alcoholism
  85. Harold and Maude- Suicide
  86. Leaving Las Vegas- Suicide, Alcoholism
  87. The madness of King George- Bipolar disorder
  88. Benny and Joon- Schizophrenia
  89. Patch Adams- Depression
  90. The basketball diaries- Drug abuse
  91. It’s a wonderful life- Suicide
  92. After life- Down syndrome
  93. Spider- Schizophrenia
  94. Wonder- Bullying
  95. A girl like her- Bullying
  96. American psycho- Narcissistic personality disorder
  97. Shutter island- Delusional disorder

   For the closure, I left my personal top three movies. Number three is no other than: One flew over the cuckoo’s nest (1975). It’s about a psychiatric hospital still using abuse and medication as a form of compliance. A man from the prison is being transferred there in hopes that it will be better than prison. My second best is I am Sam (2001), a touching movie about an intellectually disabled man who raises his daughter by himself, the struggles he faces as his daughter grows up and the discrimination by society. Finally, there is: The silence of the lambs (1991), referring to a top student from the FBI training who interviews a psychiatrist who is also a cannibalistic serial killer, hoping he knows information about another case. It’s undeniably a psychological thriller that keeps everyone on the edge of their seats the whole duration.

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Study

Types of Psychology

Written by Melisa Shafiee

Psychology. To a general audience, words like “therapy,” “mental disorders,” or “the brain” may come to mind. While these three words certainly connect to psychology in some way, it is essential to know that psychology is a more extensive field than it seems. Believe it or not, some types of psychology involve crime, sports, and even technology. This article will dive deep into ten different, fascinating types of psychology, and introduce you all to fields that you may not have known existed. Whether you are interested in pursuing a career in psychology, or are curious to learn more about the variety of existing fields, this article is one that your brain will appreciate. 

Behavioral Psychology

Why do we reward ourselves after doing something positive? Or, why do we often replicate the behaviors of our parents or relatives? Behavioral psychology explores the answers to these questions, and focuses on how our mind controls the behaviors that we do. The goal of behavioral psychologists is to predict the behaviors and habits of humans, as well as treating patients with behavioral disorders, such as ADHD or OCD. Behavioral psychologists also explore how we learn common behaviors and habits, which occurs through processes such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning. One of the most notable contributions to behavioral psychology is Albert Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment, in which he proved that children model adults’ acts of aggression, which influences their behavior. 

Clinical Psychology

For those interested in diagnosing and treating psychological disorders, clinical psychology is likely to be most appealing. Clinical psychologists work with patients and conduct tests to discover what mental disorder they may be experiencing. They will then create a treatment plan to cure the patient as proper as possible. Clinical psychologists work firsthand with patients with various disorders, such as BPD or major depressive disorder. If learning about psychological disorders is intriguing to you, then this may be a suitable path.

Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive psychology goes deep into the mind, and studies how we process, remember, and communicate information. Cognitive psychologists have various duties, such as researching the brain, conducting experiments, or treating patients with cognitive disorders. Cognitive psychologists may also test intelligence, and investigate how we “know” information. Another interesting aspect of cognitive psychology is that it sometimes focuses on states of consciousness, and even our dreams. If you want to learn why we think the way we do, or if you are passionate about neurology, cognitive psychology could definitely be a field of interest. 

Counseling Psychology

Counseling psychology focuses on treating patients who are in a difficult mental state. It is most similar to the “therapy” that we often hear of. Unlike clinical psychology, people who see a counseling psychologist do not need to have a mental disorder. Counseling psychologists work with and listen to patients to help them overcome their mental challenges, and will recommend a plan for the patient to relieve their stress and improve their sense of self. Counseling psychologists may specialize in marriage, grief, or helping youth improve their mental health. There is unfortunately still a stigma over the concept of counseling in some cultures. However, the work of counseling psychologists has been proven to work numerous times,  and they help create a healthier society each day. 

Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychologists investigate how we develop and change as we become older. They study characteristics of people at each stage of life, from infancy to elderhood. Not only do developmental psychologists learn how our minds change over time, but they also learn how our body and emotions change as well. Though a lot of the work of developmental psychologists involves studying data or conducting experiments, they may also treat patients with developmental delays or disorders. A specific idea pertaining to developmental psychology is a critical period, meaning that children have a certain amount of time in their life to learn how to fluently speak a language, or they may never learn how to speak one at all. 

Forensic Psychology

If you have fallen in love with true crime podcasts over quarantine, forensic psychology may be a fantastic career field to explore. Forensic psychologists are well-educated on the legal system, criminology, and psychology, and their work requires knowledge of all three fields. Forensic psychologists may question criminals to discover their true motivations, conduct research before a trial, or even work with law professionals to teach them how to investigate a crime scene. It is important for forensic psychologists to know how to read facial expressions, as non-verbal cues can reveal extraordinary details of a criminal. 

Health Psychology

Health psychologists play a significant role both in psychology and in the medical. Their work mainly pertains to how biological, psychological, and social factors influence our health, specifically how we become sick. They also study psychology’s role in creating behavioral medicine. On the direct level, health psychologists help people make healthier choices that benefit both their bodies and their daily lives. They may help guide patients with addiction or eating disorders on their path to recovery, and change their lives for the better. A notable health psychologist is Kelly Brownell, whose work has contributed to the actions made against obesity, such as the implementation of taxes over high-calorie foods and drinks. 

Personality Psychology

Personality psychologists focus on how our traits and characteristics make us unique. They study how people differentiate from each other by using various theories, including the Big 5 personality factors, which include extraversion and conscientiousness. Personality psychologists also discover how biological, psychological, and social factors all influence our personality, as our genes, our mind, and society all play a massive role. These psychologists may work mostly on research, but they also can help treat patients with personality disorders. Many of us have heard of Sigmund Freud, who created the notable psychodynamic theory in which our personality is influenced by our unconscious. If you are interested in learning about how individuals are the way they are, then personality psychology may be most appealing for you. 

Social Psychology

Social psychologists primarily focus on how society and social factors influence our actions, behaviors, and personalities. Social psychology is commonly confused with sociology, and it is important to know that social psychology focuses on society’s impact on an individual, while sociology focuses on societal patterns as a whole. Social psychologists may work directly with patients to improve their attitudes, decision-making, and understanding of society. Social psychologists also research societal influence over humans by observing prejudice and stereotypes, and specifically focus on how these factors impact each person. Social psychologists must have a deep understanding of society, and an even deeper understanding of its weight on the human mind. 

Sports Psychology

Wait, sports and psychology? Is that even real? Well, it is! Sports psychologists work with athletes to help them improve their performance during matches. They specifically study how sports influence our minds, and how our mind influences our performance in sports. Sports psychologists help athletes improve their performance in all aspects, from recovering from injuries to collaborating with a team. Psychology as a larger impact on sports than many of us may imagine: the next time you are watching a March Madness basketball game, think about the role a sports psychologist has made into the performance of your favorite team. 

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Human Growth and Development

Written by Simran Johal

Prenatal development is the process in which we see a baby undergo a process of growth and development within the womb fertilization until birth. There are three main stages in prenatal development: Germinal Stage, Embryonic Stage and the Fetal Stage. Let’s look into the Germinal Stage. 

    The way a plant seed germinates in soil, a sperm cell germinates amongst an egg. During this stage, the organism begins cell division and growth. It’s about 14 days in length and lasts from conception to the implantation of the zygote. The zygote is the fancy way of saying a fertilized egg. Differentiation of the cells begins to occur. This is when all the cells necessary for the placenta, umbilical etc. will begin to differentiate from the embryo. It estimates that about 60% of natural conceptions fail to implant in the uterus. 

    The Embryonic Stage is a process required in order to create an embryo. It begins once an organism is implanted in the uterine wall and stays attached until birth. It lasts from the third week to the eighth week of prenatal development after the initial conception. During this stage, cells will continue differentiating and at roughly 22 days after impregnation, the brain begins to slightly form (in the form of tubes) which is the very first step of brain development, and also the spinal column where cells enclose the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding it. There are two major directions in which growth occurs for the Embryonic Stage. The first being Cephalocaudal Development. This is where a gradual change in the head size to the body size occurs. Then the second, which is when, the muscular controls of the arms relative to the hands and fingers grow. The head develops in the fourth week, during this stage, and a pulse begins. In the early stages of Embryonic development, gills and tails are apparent (due to evolution). In this stage, the mother doesn’t usually know that she is pregnant. It’s during this period that the major structures of the body are beginning to form. The embryo is approximately 1 inch long in length and weighs about 4 grams at the end of this period. The embryo can move and respond to touch at this time. A rough sequence of development during the Germinal stage is as follows.

    During week three, the heart, brain, blood cells, spinal cord, circulatory system and digestive system begin to form. During week 4, the arm and leg buds (limbs), facial structures and bones begin to develop. The heart continues to develop. As does the brain and nervous tissue. The heart begins to beat. During week 5, the eyes, kidney nose, lungs continue to develop. The heart, brain, nervous tissue and digestive tract begin development. During the sixth week, digits, feet and hands begin to develop. The brain, heart and circulatory systems keep on developing. In the seventh week, hair follicles, nipples and sex organs begin to develop. In the eighth, and final week of the Embryonic Stage, facial features become more distinct, internal organs become well-developed, the brain can signal for muscles to move, hear development is completed and sex organs begin to form outside the body. Next, we move to the fetal stage. 

    The fetal stage begins at the ninth week and continues until birth. This is where the organism is referred to as a fetus. Majors structures are beginning to develop and by the twelfth week, the fetus has all its body parts )including external genitalia). In the following weeks, the fetus will develop hair, nails, teeth and the excretory and digestive systems will continue to develop. At the end of the week 12, the fetus weighs roughly 28 grams and is roughly 3 inches. A rough sequence of development during the Fetal stage is as follows.

    From weeks 9-12, the fetus is roughly 8cm in length and we can see the beginnings of teeth start to appear. Features such as the face, neck, eyelids, limbs, digits, and genitals are well formed. The beginnings of teeth appear, and red blood cells begin to produce in the liver. The fetus is able to make a tiny fist. During weeks 13-15, the fetus reaches roughly 25cm in length. Super fine hair begins to develop on the head, we see structures such as the lungs, sweat glands, muscles, and bones continue to develop, the fetus is able to swallow. At weeks 16-20, the fetus reaches roughly 20cm in length. Fine hair begins to cover all skin surfaces and fat begins to develop under the skin. Features such as fingers and toenails, eyebrows and eyelashes appear. The fetus becomes more active, and the mother can sometimes begin to feel kicks at this stage. From the weeks 21-24, the fetus reaches roughly 28.5 cm in length and begins to weigh approximately 0.7 kg. Hair grows longer on the head, the eyebrows and eyelashes finish forming. The lungs continue to extensively develop and the eyes finish developing. In the weeks 25-28, The fetus approaches roughly 38cm in length and weighs approximately 1.2kg. The next few weeks mark a period of rapid brain and nervous system development. The fetus gains control of other movements (opening and closing eyelids). The lungs have developed significantly so that the air breathing is possible. Weeks 29-32, the fetus reaches roughly 38/43 cm in length and weighs approximately 2kg. Under the skin, fat becomes more defined. The lungs remain immature but breathing movements do begin. The fetus’s bones are developed but have not yet hardened. In the weeks 33-36, the fetus reaches roughly 41/48cm in length and weighs 2.6-3.0kg. Body fat continues to increase under the skin. Fine hair begins to disappear, and fingernails are fully grown. The fetus has gained a high amount of control over body functions. Finally, from weeks 36-38, the fetus approaches, 48-53 in length. The first fine hair all over the body has mostly disappeared and is replaced with thicker hair on the head. Fingernails have grown past the tips of the fingers. In a healthy fetus, all organ systems are functioning. 

    There are indeed mental health issues that can occur prior to birth. Schizophrenia is thought to be genetic, consequently it occurs in our genetic makeup before we’re born. People whose mothers were undernourished while pregnant had a significantly increased risk of major affective disorders, such as mania and depression; sometimes severe enough to require hospitalization. Exposure to stress during pregnancy can cause things like autism, depressions. Anxiety and mood disorders. 

    Infancy and Toddlerhood is the type of growth occurring in children from the ages of zero to thirty-six, this includes emotional, behavioural,physical and mental growth. Culture, environment socioeconomic status or genetic factors can influence things such as when a child will begin to walk, crawl or talk. In the early 20th century, child development scholars began to understand that children weren’t just childre but actual individuals with their own unique personalities and distinct needs. The majority of infants are alert and beginning to act just hours after a normal birth, even though their body systems are immature. The sense of smell and taste are also evidently established. Infants/Toddlers will turn away from unpleasant smells and sometimes express a preference for sweet tastes as opposed to something that is more bitter tasting. Between two and three months, newborn reflexes begin to disappear. They cry less and begin to engage in social smiling. Infants entertain themselves with their own features (fingers and toes). At four months old, vision improves, infants pay attention to bright objects, preferring primary colours (particularly red). One study showed that infants were shown both symmetrical and asymmetrical faces expressed a preference for the symmetry of faces that have been identified as “attractive” by adults. However, between the ages of five and eight months, infant preferences were for asymmetrical faces. 

    Parents’ relationships with their children play a vital role in the mental health of infants and toddlers. Indications of mental health issues amongst infants or toddlers could be visible through their problems with sleeping and/or feeding or, if they over-respond or under-respond to the things around them. It can be difficult to diagnose an infant because you can’t explicitly tell what they feel or think. Normal development looks different in children, how do you know if your child’s behaviour is anything that should cause concern? A doctor can work to see what else may be causing or adding to the infant’s problems. This can take a long time, but it’s important as a diagnosis will help connect with treatment options and take actions early. 

    During early childhood, healthy development provides good building blocks for educational achievement, productivity, and helps them become a responsible ordinary citizen in their community and successful parenting of their children. During early childhood, children need nutrition, protection and stimulation for successful and healthy brain development. The earliest years are when babies’ brains form new connections. Poverty is such an important and common factor as to whether or not children receive the stimulation and nutrition they need. “250 million children under five in low-and middle-income countries risk not reaching their development potential because of extreme poverty and stunting.” The most disadvantaged children are less likely to have access to the things needed for a healthy development, for example, neglect and abuse, extreme stress: these kinds of things can block a healthy development. There is minimal public understanding of the importance of a child’s first years and little demand for policies, programs and funding. Here are some of the key facts regarding human growth and development in early childhood. 

    Lack of nutrition in early childhood leads to stunting, which globally affects nearly one-in-four children younger than five. Risks associated with poverty – such as undernutrition and poor sanitation – can lead to developmental delays and a lack of progress in school. Silent discipline is widespread in many countries, and nearly 7% of children between two and four were yelled at or screamed at in the past month. 300 million children younger than five have been exposed to societal violence. For a child in a low, or middle, income country, poor early development could mean they earn around one-quarter less in income, as an adult. For a country, poor and early childhood development could mean economic loss; in India, the loss is about twice the gross domestic product spent on health. 

    So what’s the solution to all of this? Interventions at the right time can sushion all of this development, break intergenerational cycles of inequity and provide a fair start in life. For babies born into poverty or deprivation, intervening early can reverse harm because that is when the brain is developing rapidly. 

    By middle childhood, children can dress themselves, play games such as catch and potentially, hopefully, tie their own shoes etc. It is important to make sure that children have independence from family becomes more important as children are brought into contact with the larger world. At this time, physical, social and mental skills develop quickly and thus, friendships become more important. It is eally important for children to develop confidence in all areas of life. Children might start to think more about the future and understand more about their place in the world. They’ll pay more attention to things such as friendship and want to be liked and accepted by friends. They also learn better ways to describe experiences and talk about thoughts and feelings, they become more empathetic and show more concern for others. 

    What should parents be doing when their child is approaching middle childhood? They can do things such as; showing more affection for your children, recognizing their accomplishments, help your child develop a sense of responsibility (i.e. chores), talk to your child about school, friends and the things he or she looks forward to in the near or far future, help them set achievable goals, make clear rules and stick to them (be clear about what behaviour is okay and not okay), do fun things as a family, get involved with their school, continue reading to them, use discipline to guide and protect your child rather than punishment to lower their self esteem, praise your child for good behaviour, support your child taking on new challenges and encourage your child to join school and community groups, such as a team sports, or to take advantage of volunteer opportunities, children in this age group might start to form stronger “more complex friendships and peer relationships. It becomes more emotionally important to have friends, especially of the same sex”. Please do keep in mind that many children cognitively and physically developing may experience mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, OCD, eating disorders and, you should be careful as to how you approach certain situations with your child as you may have no idea what they’re going through. 

    During adolescence, children begin to develop the capacity for abstract and logical thought. They have an enhanced awareness of themselves and ability to reflect empathetically onto their actions. Self awareness often turns into self consciousness and for adolescents, there is potentially a preoccupation with physical appearance, attractiveness and a heightened sensitivity to differences from peers: not always but sometimes. Right and wrongs for adolescents is fixed and absolute. Older adolescents, often question standards of behaviour and may reject traditions. The people in this age group find schoolwork that is more complex, they’re able to identify areas of interest as well as relative strengths and weaknesses. This is a period of time in which many people in this age group begin to consider career options. Many adolescents begin to engage in risky behaviours such as fast driving, experimenting sexually, risky sexual practices, illegal activities, theft, alcohol and drug use. 

    The areas of the brain that control emotions develop and mature. Although adolescents, do learn to gradually control/suppress inappropriate thoughts and actions and replace them with goal-oriented behaviours. The emotional aspect of this growth is often very trying, often with the patience of parents, teachers and other adults/authoritarians. Communication, even within stable families, can be difficult and is worsened when families are divided or parents have emotional problems of their own. 

    Family is at the center of social life for children. During the time period of adolescence, the peer group begins to replace the family as the child’s primary social focus. Peer groups are often established because of distinctions in dress, appearance, attitudes, hobbies. Adolescents who find themselves without a peer group may develop intense feelings of being different and alienated. Gang membership is more common when the home and social environment are unable to counterbalance the dysfunctional demands of peer groups. 

    Doctors should screen all adolescents for mental health disorders such as: depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, schizophrenia, eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Substance abuse typically begins during adolescence, this isn’t to marginalize anyone, it is simply a statistic. More than 70% of adolescents in the United States try alcohol before they graduate high school. Somes statistics show that adolescents who start drinking alcohol at a young age are more likely to develop an alcohol disorder as an adult. For example, adolescents who start drinking at age 13 are 5 times more likely to develop an alcohol use disorder than those who start drinking at 21. Almost 50% of US adolescents try cigarettes, over 40% try electronic cigarettes, and more than 40% try marijuana while they are in high school. Use of other drugs is much less common, although misuse of prescription drugs, including drugs for pain and stimulants, is on the rise.

Our psychological and physical development go hand in hand and for one to thrive or even survive the other must do the same. We need to take care of ourselves as well as we do physically, mentally and vice versa. Be a support system for loved ones.

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All About Forensic Psychology

Written by Alicia Mathew

When most people think about Psychology, they often forget forensic Psychology, no matter how complex and interesting it is under the surface. Forensic Psychology is a field of Psychology that combines law with psychological analyses. 

Lately, forensic Psychology has become extremely popular, mainly because of certain television series that highlight aspects of forensic Psychology, such as, “Criminal Minds”. However, this show fails to truly present the intricacies of this field.

Forensic Psychology is defined as the application of psychological specialties to legal issues. It is performed through the application of the aforementioned specialties in legal affairs. Forensic, from the Latin word, forensic, meaning “of the market place or form, public” (Merriam-Webster), most nearly means the application of different scientific methods and ideas from various fields to criminal matters. The median salary for this profession is $79,010.

Psychology, the study of the mind and behavior, is crucial to law and the criminal court. Forensic Psychology, the combination and application of these two topics, is used for everything from conducting psychological evaluations to preventing crimes. Similar to other fields of psychology, forensic Psychology also contains subspecialties. Some of these include correctional psychology, military psychology, and juvenile psychology. All of these specialties are under the term, “Forensic Psychology”, since they all revolve around using psychological methods as they apply to the justice system. 

During their working hours, forensic psychologists perform various duties. Even though some of these duties might not resemble those of the fast-paced and exciting crime dramas that are based on this field, the profession is exciting and fun nonetheless. These psychologists often work with individuals such as attorneys, judges, and other professionals in the legal area. They attempt to understand and explain certain psychological aspects that have an impact on a criminal case, and many of these psychologists are asked to testify as an expert witness during the case. Other responsibilities include evaluating criminals for mental status and competency, teaching in programs for forensic Psychology, evaluating witnesses and jurors, and evaluating individuals during child custody cases.

To become a forensic psychologist, one must complete a reasonable amount of coursework after high school. However, a doctoral degree is necessary to evaluate patients. Certain programs may waive the requirement for a bachelor’s degree in psychology in exchange for a certain amount of psychology and science classes. After schooling, one must go through the licensing process, which, in the majority of cases, includes a required standardized test. 

Regarding the work environment for professionals in this area, forensic psychologists are normally allotted flexible working hours. They also have the option to start what is known as a “private practice”, or a business that is created to allow medical professionals to self-employ and practice their profession. To perform their job correctly and to become an asset to their work environment, forensic psychologists need to have certain character traits, such as good communication skills, objectivity, compassion, and critical thinking skills. 

All in all, forensic psychology is a relatively new psychological specialty, but a specialty that is becoming more and more prevalent in the media. Forensic psychology is fascinating and rewarding for those who have an interest in both law, and psychology and is a wonderful career path for those who are seriously considering it. 

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Perspective

The Hidden Figures of Mental Health

Written by Alice Palioura

It is undeniable that male psychologists have had major contributions in the mental health system, but, unfortunately, the importance of the work that women psychologists offered to shape it from its early years is usually overlooked rather than recognized. Many of them faced discrimination, couldn’t even vote or have their own office at the time, but still managed to alter the mental health system under these unfavorable conditions.

   A good example of an underestimated psychologist is Anna Freud. Everyone’s aware of her father, Sigmund Freud, but how many actually know about her efforts? The truth is that Anna not only expanded her father’s ideas and played a huge role in child psychotherapy, but also became one of the greatest psychoanalysts in the world.

   Another important figure, often described as one of the founders of neuropsychology, is Brenda Milner, currently at 102 years old. She led the way for a better understanding of the brain structure and memory and worked with the famous patient H.M. for over 30 years following his experimental surgery where portions of his brain were removed to ease his epilepsy.

  Mamie Phipps Clark, the first African American woman to earn a Phd in psychology, revealed the harmful effects of racism in children through the “Clark doll test”, which was used on the historic 1954 American supreme court case Brown v. Board of education. She also provided support to Americans of color and homeless black girls and overall improved the terms of mental health care about people of color. Similarly, Reiko True, a Japanese American psychologist born in 1933 strived to upgrade mental health services for Asian-Americans and other minorities.

  Moreover, a pioneer at child psychoanalysis was Melanie Klein, most known for her never before applied techniques such as play therapy that assisted children’s treatment. She also was one of the founders of object relations theory that shaped psychoanalysis.

 As an active member of the women’s suffrage party, educator and psychologist, Leta Stetter Hollingworth left her mark on the psychology of women and gifted children, especially the nature of gifted girls and women. Likewise, Helen Thompson Wooley, born in 1874, made contributions in the educational division but most importantly she was the first to research sex differences scientifically.

  Although women were once the minority in the mental health system, the tables have turned. Now they make up more than half the members of APA (American Psychological Association), replenishing those who were excluded all the previous years because of their sex.

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Perspective

CS7: Inside Out

Written by Melisa Shafiee

When we think back to our favorite childhood movies, we remember extravagant stories with comedy and adventure. However, there is one movie that sticks out from the rest as it not only shares an exciting story, but it also emphasizes an important message on mental health. It may also have been our first exposure to the emotions joy, sadness, anger, disgust, and fear, and even the topic of growing up. This movie is none other than Inside Out. 

Inside Out tells the story of Riley, who has difficulty adjusting to the new town she has moved in. She is constantly missing her friends and becoming distant from her family. It is prevalent that Riley, a young girl, is experiencing signs of depression and anxiety, as is shown by her attempting to run away from home. Throughout the movie, we are introduced to Riley’s main five emotions: The optimistic emotion of Joy, the gloomy emotion of Sadness, the fiery emotion of Anger, the contempt emotion of Disgust, and the panicky emotion of Fear. Much of Riley’s life has been dominated by Joy. However, as Riley experiences hardships in her new town, we see how emotions such as Sadness, Anger, and Fear, result in her to behave the way she does. At one point, Sadness begins to take over the other emotions, and she justifies by saying she simply cannot help it. The movie helps explain that we may sometimes feel sad out of the blue, and that is completely acceptable. In a world where we are constantly encouraged to be happy, it can be difficult to explain why one is sad- especially where there is no explanation. Inside Out maintains the theme of how it is okay to not be okay, and how it is acceptable for a child to feel sad at times. 

Inside Out further emphasizes the importances of our other, more disliked emotions such as Fear, Anger, Sadness. The movie conveys the message of how life would not be the same if we felt Joy all the time, and how our other emotions are just as necessary. Of course, no one wants to feel fearful all the time, but fear is essential as it holds us back from making impulsive and dangerous decisions. This is evident in Inside Out when Fear is described as the character that keeps Riley safe by making her think before her actions. The importance of Anger is also portrayed when Riley stands up for herself in her classroom. One of the most notable scenes of the movie is towards the end, where Riley recalls a memory of her cuddling with her family, disappointed after losing a hockey game. Though Joy tries to make this memory seem happier since it is her job, Sadness steps in and wisely mentions the importance of this sad memory. The sadness that Riley helped bond her with her family, and it served as a motivating learning experience for the future. When I first watched Inside Out, I remember being confused by this scene, wondering why a memory that sad should even exist. But, my mother reminded me that we need sadness in our lives because they help us grow as individuals. Since then, I have learned to cherish my sad memories, and use them as inspiration for growing stronger. Certainly, all of these emotions can be harmful if felt continuously, but Inside Out shows that we would not function the same without them. A curious child who watches the movie will become more familiar with each of their emotions, and learn why they are all important. 

Finally, it is important to mention the role childhood imaginary friends have in Inside Out. During one of the exciting journeys in the movie, we meet the character Bing Bong, who was Riley’s imaginary friend as a child. Bing Bong is a symbol of Riley’s purity and innocence from her childhood, but as Riley grows more mature, we see Bing Bong’s importance begin to fade away. Eventually, Bing Bong accepts that Riley has to move on from him to grow as an individual, and he becomes a distant memory. In this sentimental scene, we see the importance of maturity and moving on, though it may be difficult. Children are no stranger to having all sorts of imaginary friends, but it is important for them to learn to face reality as they grow older. Inside Out shows that it is difficult for children to not cling on to their past and experience the real world on their own, and the movie normalizes this idea. Children navigating the world on their own can be a challenging time mentally, but Inside Out demonstrates the importance of doing so because it fosters their future growth. The transition to adolescence involves losing friends, both real and imaginary, but it also involves gaining knowledge and our sense of identity. 

Inside Out gives us insight to common mental challenges that children experience as they grow older, from accepting their emotions to becoming mature individuals. It does what many other childrens’ movies fail to do, and that is to introduce children to the topic of mental health. Inside Out has complex characters, exciting adventures, and real world challenges, all wrapped up into one beautiful movie. Big or small, Inside Out’s message can touch us all. 

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Perspective

CS6: American Psycho

Written by Simran Johal

Patrick Bateman

  • Handsome perfectionist who enjoyed the aristocratic social life and social scene. 
  • He had to control every aspect of his life:
    • His cuticles 
    • His business cards 
    • His somewhat ritualistic sex routine 
  • His behaviour in the film, In my opinion, indicated an extreme case of OCD as he indicated “ritualized, repetitive behaviour that you[he] feel compelled to perform: your[his] obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior is irrational.

*NOTE: Always wants to be the best in everything he does. Could his father having a drastic amount of money have something to do with the fact that he notices every small detail and demands perfection for things to go his way? 

What it means to have extreme OCD

  • If you suffer from OCD, your obsessive and compulsive thoughts/behaviors become so consuming that they interfere with your daily life 
  • It’s an anxiety disorder that is characterized by unwanted and uncontrollable thoughts, as well as repetitive behaviours that you feel compelled to perform.
  • OCD causes the brain to get stuck on a particular thought or urge. 
  • You can try to avoid situations that trigger or worsen your symptoms or self-medicate with alcohol or drugs. 
  • It can seem like there’s no end to escaping your obsessions and compulsions, there are tons of different things you can do to regain control of your thoughts and actions. 

Given the symptoms listed above and the behaviours surrounding Patrick Bateman as a character my analysis of the film is that a person who ranks very highly on the societal ladder is struggling with mental health issues, OCD, with a twist. Towards the end we see him confessing to his crimes because he doesn’t want to keep doing this. To me, this shows direct correlation with a severe case of OCD. 

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Study

High School Courses for Psychology

Written by Alicia Mathew

Picking high school courses is a daunting task, especially for the rising freshmen and sophomores. Those who choose psychology as their field of study have a sea of different classes and electives offered by their school in regards to their major, however, only some of these classes are truly useful for a path in psychology. 

To begin, AP Psychology is an excellent class for an individual with plans to pursue psychology. AP, or “Advanced Placement” Psychology is offered by the CollegeBoard. IB psychology is also an option, however, the system is different for that specific class. There are no required prerequisites for this class and it is taught on a college level. This class also has a final exam, and college credit in psychology will be awarded to those who pass this exam. The score to earn credit depends on the college that the student is applying to, however, this class is an excellent choice for those who are hoping to lessen their financial burden or open their schedules up for more advanced classes. Since this class is equivalent to an introductory psychology class in most colleges, it frees up a class so the student can learn more specialized and advanced material. This class connects psychology to real-world scenarios, teaches students to understand and interpret data, is an excellent introductory class for students who are unsure about Psychology, and offers research studies for students to grow their knowledge in this area. Overall, this class is a wonderful choice for all learners with an interest in Psychology. 

Continuing along, Statistics is also an excellent class for those who want to pursue a career in Psychology. Although it may seem counterintuitive, Statistics is a crucial element for research, which is an extremely important concept in Psychology. In Psychology, research is key, and statistics will help one understand how to properly conduct and interpret research. This class, as well as Algebra, will also help with the understanding of variables, graphs, probability, etcetera. CollegeBoard offers an AP Statistics course, which also involves a final test that offers college credit at certain colleges depending on scores. 

Social sciences are also crucial for those who have an interest in Psychology. These classes include government, economics, history, geography, and sociology, among others. These courses help with general knowledge, as well as certain aspects in Psychology such as social psychology and behavioral psychology. Also, some of these classes are offered as AP and IB courses. Biology is also extremely important with regards to Psychology. This is mainly because biology allows psychologists to better understand the relationship between psychology and the physiology behind certain psychological concepts. Biology is offered as both an AP course and an IB course, but the availability of those courses depends on the specific high school. 

Biology, social sciences, AP psychology, and statistics are all crucial classes for individuals who are planning on pursuing a future in psychology. For those who are interested in psychology and deciding their high school classes, these classes are extremely helpful and provide a strong foundation for a more enlightening future. 

Categories
Interview

Caroline Wolff.

I see that you’re a chronic illness advocate. Could you tell us what got you interested in the subject?

As someone who was born with a very rare chronic illness (Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction, or CIP), I’ve personally faced a lot of stigma throughout my life. CIP is an intestinal motility disorder, meaning my intestines are extremely uncoordinated due to a disconnect between my nervous system and my digestive tract. I’ve been on an all-liquid diet for my whole life and I receive all of my nutrition through two feeding tubes. After I was born, my doctors told my parents that I would likely die before turning 1 year old, but now I’m about to turn 20! They said I would never walk, and now I’m a dancer! I go to college, I have amazing friends, and I live a fulfilling and independent life despite my complications. Therefore, I want nothing more than to spread the message that chronically-ill people are entirely competent individuals who deserve to be treated with the same dignity and respect as everyone else.

What facts or misconceptions do you believe are important about chronic illnesses? 

There are way too many misconceptions and stigmas for me to even discuss here, but I can go over some of the ones that i found most important to address and oppose:

  • I’ve faced a lot of accusations about “faking being sick” from people who don’t know me. The reason for this is because CIP is what is called an “invisible illness”. There are no major physical signs of CIP, except for my feeding tubes which are both hidden under my clothes. There are many, many people in the world who have invisible illnesses and probably face the exact same accusations. It’s wrong to boil down chronic illness to something that can be detected by looking at someone. It’s wrong for there to even be a standard of what disabilities or chronic illnesses are “supposed to look like”. Just because someone isn’t in a wheelchair or exhibiting some other visible indicator, that doesn’t mean they aren’t chronically ill. In fact, I can guarantee you that most of us are faking being well so that we can keep up with the rapid pace of life!
  • Just because chronically-ill people do things differently or maybe might not be able to do everything you can do, that doesn’t mean we need or deserve pity! Whenever I tell people about my chronic illness, the most common reaction is deep sadness. I want people to know that just because our lives are different from yours, that doesn’t mean our lives are sad! Sure, we may have parts of life that are less than ideal, but we have plenty of good things in our lives as well.
  • Some people ask extremely invasive questions that are, quite frankly, none of their business. I want to first make it clear: I have absolutely no issue with educating people. I’m actually happy to do so! The problem when it gets taken a step too far. Some of my own personal examples are things like, “Can I see your tubes?” or “Is your CIP the reason why you’re so short?”. Instead, ask politely-framed questions that will help you become more aware of the condition, and don’t pry if the person you’re asking appears uncomfortable or asks you to stop.
  • Chronically-ill people are not fragile! We are very strong and competent people who just want to be treated like everyone else. I appreciate polite concern, of course, but people should not feel the need to hover over someone just because they are chronically-ill. Chronically-ill people do not want to be defined by their illness, but rather, they want to be given room to make their own decisions and show off their own potential.
  • It is wrong to call a chronically-ill person lazy just because they express that they are tired or struggling. In reality, chronically-ill and disabled people are the farthest thing from lazy, having to navigate a world that was not built for them. We power through major pain, fatigue, and other symptoms every day so that we can live life alongside everyone else!
  • Finally, I think it’s important to notice and call out insane double standards for chronically-ill and disabled people. For example, when we choose to express our sexuality, we are reduced to a fetish. When we are successful, it’s because we “got it handed to us”. It’s absolutely ridiculous! People with chronic illnesses and disabilities are no less of a person because of it; we work hard, we have fun, we achieve greatness, we have sex lives and friendships. We are human!!

I also learned that you are an aspiring author and poet. What are some practices you recommend doing when faced with writer’s block?

Yes! I love to write more than anything else in the world. Poetry is a huge coping mechanism for me, a way for me to take heartbreak and struggle and make it into art. Fiction writing is a way for me to create and tell stories that are not only important to me, but that I hope will resonate with others in a big way.

One of the things I love to do to get my creative juices flowing is to go out in public and just experience things. Go to a park and sit on a bench. Take note of the scenery. Look around and absorb the atmosphere. Be observant everywhere you go: school, work, the grocery store. Everywhere. I think writing what you know and writing with the senses are two really great practices, and this method combines both. I love to pull from personal experiences, whether that’s in the past or present (or hopes for the future), big or small. I also recommend bringing a notebook, tablet, computer, or something else you can use to jot down ideas with you everywhere. This way, when you get inspiration, you can just run with it without running the risk of forgetting anything!! Remember to trust the process and don’t force creativity; the best ideas come naturally.

Do you believe in reading therapy? Furthermore, has reading and/or writing helped you with your own mental health in the past? If so, why do you believe that it helped?

Yes, I do! One of my primary forms of self-care is reading for fun. Reading helps me to distance myself from my stresses and problems for a little while by joining a fictional world. Sometimes, learning can even help you learn something new about life/yourself or make you feel less alone by introducing you to a character or plot line that you relate to. Writing, as I mentioned earlier, has been crucial in maintaining my mental health. Creative writing has helped me by giving me an outlet to channel my thoughts and feelings into something beautiful, creative and long-lasting; something that I am proud of and that can be shared with the world and potentially help others.

What would you say to your younger self?

In the shortest terms, I would tell her that it gets better. I know that sounds vague, but I think that I needed to hear that more than anything. My CIP had such detrimental effects on my mental health as I grew up. I was isolated from peer groups a lot, which caused me to develop bad social anxiety. My tubes and scars altered my body shape and resulted in body dysmorphia. I also struggled with depression in middle school and early high school due to social isolation, bullying, and a belief that my life would never be “normal” or “like everyone else’s”. I felt like I would never find friends or happiness, but now, I have. 

How has the pandemic affected you mentally?

During the summer months of 2020, practically all of my mental health problems came back in full swing. I started feeling more anxious in social situations because I fell out of practice with socializing, not being able to see and talk to people at school every day. I felt extremely depressed and unmotivated most days since all I was doing was sitting at home. I also experienced a lack of physical activity because I wasn’t able to walk around and work out as much, which led to a relapse in my fixation on my body. Most of these things, thankfully, have gone by the wayside since I’ve been in school again. Bottom line: this pandemic has been so rough on everyone, and we need to remember to be kind to one another.

What are the most beautiful things about life to you?

Another difficult question, because I think there’s so many things about life that are beautiful and worthwhile. Some things that make my life worthwhile and beautiful are: poetry, books, random acts of kindness, music, art, meeting someone and having an immediate connection, deep and passionate conversations with someone you love, rainy mornings (light rain, not scary rain!), pets/animals, hugs, the feel of a warm blanket, long car rides at night, spontaneous side trips, trying new things. The short answer: all the little things and little moments… Those are always the most significant.

What does mental health mean to YOU?

To me, mental health is not about having the most perfect life. It’s about knowing how to cope and continue living life to the fullest even in the darkest of times. It’s about always knowing your worth, your beauty, and all of your good qualities even when other people (or just life in general) tries to tear you down.

Is there anything else you’d like to tell Revive’s audience?

First of all, THANK YOU for taking the time to read my story and for listening to what I have to say! It’s been a true pleasure. I also just want to remind you that you are worthy, you are loved, and you are beautiful even if it doesn’t feel that way right now. Remember to be kind and patient with others. And finally, remember that I am proud of you for being you and for getting up and living life despite all of your circumstances. I promise your struggle will be worth it in the end. Life is worth it.


Check out Caroline!

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Study

The History of Yoga

In recent years, yoga has gained popularity, became a trend, and has helped many worldwide. While most of the original poses have been altered to fit modern society, yoga has still shown to be effective, especially when helping people with their mental health. Yoga is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices and it’s important to acknowledge the history behind it because it’s so much more than sitting criss-cross-applesauce, closing your eyes, and saying “OM”. In this post, we will be talking about the history of yoga, how it helps from a psychological perspective, and why you should think about trying the practice out for yourself. 

What is yoga?

Let’s start with what yoga even is and get the basic gist of the discipline. Yoga is a practice that encompasses breathing technique, postures, strengthening exercises, and meditation. The different types of yoga are Hatha, Lyengar, Kundalini, Bikram, Ananda, Vivnoya, and Anusara. The most popular in the US is Hatha Yoga. Yoga emphasizes a spiritual connection between the mind and body. Yoga was first created over 5000 or more years ago in India. The word “yoga” originates from the word “yuj” in Sanskrit meaning “unite”. Yoga was a Hindu practice created to control the senses and the mind. It was made to create peace, rejuvenate the body, and prolong life.

Yoga’s Transition to the West

Swami Vivekananda introduced yoga to North America in 1893 at the World Parliaments of Religion in Chicago. In 1920 Paramahansa Yogananda visited Boston and introduced yoga to the liberals religions conference he was attending. He wrote “The Autobiography of Yogi” which helped bring yoga to North America. By 1961, yoga began to air on television networks bringing it into the public eye. Yoga became very popular as a form of exercise and path of enlightenment all across North America in 1990

What is OM?

OM is a mantra or vibration that is said to be the sound of the universe. It is to remind us that the entire universe is moving. People who do yoga often chant OM because it is the basic sound of the universe. By chanting it they are symbolically and physically connecting themselves with nature. It also is a form of meditation. The sound slows down the nervous system and calms the mind. 

Many people aren’t sure how to pronounce “OM”, so we’ll teach you. It consists of four syllables A, U, M and the silent syllable. The first syllable is pronounced awe, coming from the throat. The second syllable is pronounced oo with the sound gradually rolling out of your mouth. The third syllable is pronounced as long held mmm with your front teeth gentle touching. The fourth syllable is the silent syllable, it is the deep silence of the infinite.

Psychological Benefits

  • Decreases stress
  • Recognizes self-acceptance 
  • Reduces anxiety 
  • Eliminates hostility 
  • Calms you down
  • Supports concentration 
  • Improves mood
  • Elevates attention-driven skills
  • Lowers overall risks of developing a mental illness